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The aim of the study was to document perceived social support in a sample of german war-raped women in World War II.

Furthermore the impact of this potential resource on todays posttraumatic symptoms should be pointed out.

But the behavior of the Red Army, the activities of several powerful Soviet institutions active in Germany, and the unwillingness of the occupiers and their German clients to tolerate spontaneity made this impossible.

Naimark's research supports the estimate made by German historians Barbara Johr and Helke Sander that Soviet soldiers raped as many as two million German women between the time their counteroffensive reached German territory and well past the formal end of hostilities (see Johr and Sander, eds., , Munich: Verlag Antje Kunstmann, 1992).

While Berlin was hardest hit, the problem was endemic in the Soviet zone.

In World War II sexually traumatized women could profit only few from the examined resource.

The found negative relationship between perceived social support and posttraumatic symptoms shows additionally the potentially long-lasting impact of these form of coping on psychological health in trauma victims.

Other depredations plagued German women and men throughout the occupation period.